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A blog on the latest applications, articles, & research on chromatography solutions in sample preparation, Ion Chromatography (IC),
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ion Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (IC-MS), Gas Chromatography (GC),
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-MS/MS), and software (Chromeleon CDS, LIMS, and ProteinCenter).

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Your Elemental Analysis is Costing you More Than you Think: Part 2

  
  
  
  
  
  
trace elemental analysis

In the second part to my three-part series on trace elemental analysis, I want to address automated, intelligent liquid dilution that can provide two benefits, namely, a reduction in costs and a speeding up of analysis resulting in increased productivity. In my previous blog post, titled, Your Elemental Analysis is Costing You More Than You Think: Part 1, (link to post) , I discussed the advantages in using a switching valve to introduce samples using a segmented stream instead of a continuous flow stream.

Effect of Sample Dilution on Matrix Effects in Pesticides Analysis

  
  
  
  
  
  
pesticides analysis in food

I recently read a publication that appeared in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Yang et al, published ahead of print on January 25, 2015), titled, Effect of Sample Dilution on Matrix Effects in Pesticide Analysis of Several Matrices by Liquid-Chromatography−High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry, (link to article abstract). This in-depth evaluation of the effect of sample dilution on matrix effects in pesticide residue analysis is an excellent read and was coauthored by Paul Yang from Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Jon W. Wong, Kai Zhang, and Alexander J. Krynitsky at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jian Wang at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and  our very own James S. Chang and Maciej Bromirski.

Authenticity of Dietary Supplements in Question: A Recall in New York- Part 2

  
  
  
  
  
  
dietary supplement recall

On Feb 5, 2015 I wrote a blog post, titled, Authenticity of Dietary Supplements in Question: A Recall in New York, (link to blog post). Now, I have a part 2 of this story, in that the State Attorney Generals from the States of Connecticut, Indiana and Puerto Rico along with New York have formed a coalition to expand the herbal supplement industry investigation (link to story).

To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? But, What About Cancer Vaccines?

  
  
  
  
  
  
Measles Cell

As a former drug-formulation chemist, I have been following the debate and discussion around the recent outbreak of measles in the U.S. among unvaccinated individuals with deep interest because I wonder if this turning away from vaccines could also mean that such individuals may turn away from other vaccines, such as those for preventing cancer. It is commonly understood that it is better to prevent disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web link) than to treat it after it has occurred. (By the way, the stunning image is of a measles cell.)

Microcystin Prevalence and Analysis – Is a Regulation on the Horizon?

  
  
  
  
  
  
analysis of algal toxins in water using hplc

Microcystins, a class of toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria, have been very much in the news for many years and are now a global issue, as described in an article on research conducted into the presence of cyanobacteria in the coastal areas of Lake Baltic (link to abstract; only the abstract is free). There have been several outbreaks in the U.S. too, for example, there was a record outbreak of blooming microcystins that occurred in Lake Erie in 2011, in part related to the wettest spring on record, and resulted in expanding the lake bottom dead zones, reduced fish populations, fouled beaches, and negatively impacted the local tourism industry that generates more than $10 Billion USD in revenue annually. In 2013, a water treatment plant became so overwhelmed by the microcystins in the water that it was shut down. Again, in 2014, about half-a-million people in the state of Ohio in the U.S. were without drinking water due to high toxin levels from algae on Lake Erie while others were put on alert before the ban was finally lifted.

A Chemist, a Biologist and a Systems Architect walk into a bar…

  
  
  
  
  
  
biopharma development (2)

... and none of them could understand what the others were saying.

Who Put Butter in My Beer?

  
  
  
  
  
  
analysis of vicinal diketones in beer

On a recent visit to the local pub with some friends for our ritual of beverage testing, specifically beer, we had a strange encounter. When the drinks were taste tested, two of my friends commented on the buttery taste of their beer. And even though each of us was accused of playing a prank on the others and we all denied it, it certainly didn’t spoil a great evening.

Guiding the Sweet Revolution in Glycomics

  
  
  
  
  
  
HPAE-PAD mass spectrometry analysis of glycoproteins

There’s been a lot of interest recently in the study of glycans and glycoforms, such as proteins and peptides that have glycans attached to them. The analysis of glycans (also known as carbohydrates, or sometimes simply sugars) is of growing importance to sciences as diverse as pharmaceutical drug development, cancer research, stem cell research and biofuels development.

How Are You Controlling Copper Additive Performance in Electroplating Baths?

  
  
  
  
  
  
semiconductor chips

Getting fast, accurate measurements on the performance of additives used in semiconductor electroplating baths is of critical importance in providing plating quality which includes uniformity, brightness, and consistency. Liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection (CAD) and electrochemical detector techniques ensures reliable plating by detecting individual components, their byproducts, and other components in process monitoring applications. The technique has been successfully applied to the determination of individual organic additives in acid copper and nickel plating baths.

Sifting Through Bromate Analysis Methods for Drinking Water Analysis

  
  
  
  
  
  
determination of trace concentrations of bromate and oxyhalides in high-ionic-strength matrices

Much has been written on bromate methods (link to article on comparison of regulated methods) over the years, but what still confuses some people are the multitude of methods available for the analysis of bromate. As a well known toxic disinfection by-product typically formed from the ozonation of water containing bromide, bromate is regulated in many countries around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a regulatory maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 µg/L of bromated in drinking water and a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) of  0.8 µg/L. The World Health organization (WHO) also recommends an MCL of 10 ug/L of bromated in their publication, titled, Bromate in Drinking Water, (downloadable PDF). The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has a similar level. In addition, the European Commission established a lower MCL of 3 μg/L bromate in natural mineral waters and spring water treated by ozonation.

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